There are multiple tactics to use to deal with it as well. It really shouldn't take that long to get to higher values, though. Especially since not every battle you fight is going to be against kiting fleets. They outrange you, yeah, so don't just tell all your ships to go directly towards them.
Spread out, box them in if they're Chaos lance-kiting fleets, don't waste your combustion gauge, use faster ships to be sure, use torpedoes to get damage and threaten their paths of escape. Their whole goal is to keep you from doing this long enough to cripple your vessels so they can close in for a kill. Your whole goal is to get close before this happens, and deal enough damage to them that even if they do get away, they can't do as much damage while you trap them again. It takes time to get good at, for the cat more so than the mouse, but like I said. Slow armies, or slow fleets, require a lot more planning and strategy. Fast fleets require a lot more tactics and precision. And remember, odds are they're limited to staying within 12k. You don't need many skills to catch up quick, or force them to interact with you. In fact, MWJ doesn't work if a ship is within 3k of their desired position; this is the other purpose to escorts in such a fleet.
For carrier fleets, you can be certain they can't be farther than 12k, most of the time, though they might dip in and out. Make use of gas clouds, asteroid fields, Running Silent, and other orders to reduce damage, as well as heavy escorts (6 turrets, maybe even 9, for ~40 points is a very good deal). Cobras and Widowmakers are a lot less useful due to the automatic fighter screens they'll be using, plus the attacks their escort fighters can throw on the way. If you can get a carrier of your own, it'll make things easier, but it's by no means a requirement. Torpedoes are, unfortunately, mostly useless against carrier fleets, as they care a lot less about precise positioning. However, they need to have you identified in order to throw their stuff at you. Keep an eye out for their augur probes, try to be unpredictable with your movements, and close the gap silently. If they have escorts they use for scouting, break them. That, at least, should be easy. Carrier fleets may or may not try to stick together to maximize fighter coverage (and if you already have healthy fighters around your carrier, a wave of assault boats on the way to their carrier should help mitigate their wave damage further), but squadrons of escorts, again, particularly with the Defensive Turrets upgrade, can hem them in pretty readily, or serve as very effective shields for your larger vessels. That leaves catching up to them, of course, which is less about speed and more about stealth, though speed and flanking is still important. It's simply more difficult to do, since spreading out makes you more vulnerable to their ordnance waves. Best bet will be misdirection and deception. Of course, raw speed can work as well when necessary; keep in mind that if you have Running Silent on while going All Full Ahead, if you drop out of boosting even just as Running Silent is about to end, you can go back to being unidentified.
As for Eldar...well, the bright side is that Eldar carriers are uncommon, and don't deal too incredibly much damage, and that Eldars are even more fragile to escorts. The downside is that they will be incredibly, ridiculously difficult to actually catch if played right. Luckily, their fighter screens will be a lot less significant, and a good wave of assault boats from your carrier can hurt 'em plenty. Other than that, same strategies apply, though forcing them into Asteroid Fields (while forcing the Eldar to go any particular route is quite difficult, to be fair) will be even more effective.
The other bright side, the incredibly, blindingly bright one is that pulsars have to get close to you. There's...not much else to say there. :/ Jump, Taunt, and Ram?